The roar of an adult male lion can be heard up to five miles away.
The genus Panthera includes lions, tigers, jaguars, leopards, and snow leopards. Basically, the members of this genus are the only felines that have the ability to roar. Rightly called ‘the king of the jungle’, a lion is certainly unparalleled when it comes to roaring. Unlike the robust roar of males that can be heard when the male defends his territory, females roar gently while calling their cubs. Primarily nocturnal in nature, lions hunt at night, and sleep during the day. They are the only cats that display sexual dimorphism, which means that the males differ from the females in terms of appearance. Also, they are the only cats that live in social groups called prides.
While one of the male African lions leads a pride, which consists of 2-3 males, and 10-12 females. The females are related to each other, and never leave the pride. On the other hand, Asiatic lions are solitary. Their interaction with females is confined to mating. The African lion is the tallest animal among the members of Felidae family, and they are also second largest in the Felidae family.
Currently, wild lions exist only in the sub-Saharan Africa, and a very small number of Asiatic lions (a sub-species of African lions) is found in the Gir Forest Reserve in Gujarat, India. The population of Asiatic lions had declined to a mere 18 animals in 1893. But thanks to the conservation efforts, the population is now around 400. The African lions were classified as Vulnerable in 2004, but their numbers are declining, with their population estimated to be between 23,000 and 39,000. With the population down to less than 1,500, they are meeting the criteria for regionally Endangered in the West Africa.
Though the modern lions have been classified into 24 sub-species on the basis of morphological differences (size, thickness of the coat, color of the coat, mane size, etc.) in different geographical regions, mitochondrial DNA sequence variation analysis suggests that sub-Saharan lions (Panthera leo) should be considered as a single sub-species.